Abstract: Characterization of Two Porcine Parainfluenza Virus 1 Isolates and Human Parainfluenza Virus 1 Infection in Weaned Nursery Pigs
Porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV1) is a newly characterized porcine respiratory virus. Recent experimental challenge studies in three-week-old nursery pigs failed to cause disease. However, it remains unclear how genetic differences contribute to viral pathogenesis. To characterize the pathogenesis of different PPIV1 isolates, three-week-old nursery pigs were challenged with either PPIV1 isolate USA/MN25890NS/2016 (MN16) or USA/IA84915LG/2017 (IA17). A human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV1) strain C35 ATCC® VR-94™ was included to evaluate swine as a model for human parainfluenza. All viruses were successfully re-isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and detected by RT-qPCR at necropsy. Microscopic lung lesions were more severe in the IA17 group compared to the non-challenged negative control (Ctrl) group whereas differences were not found between the MN16 and Ctrl groups. Immunohistochemistry staining in respiratory samples showed a consistent trend of higher levels of PPIV1 signal in the IA17 group followed by the MN16 group, and no PPIV1 signal observed in the HPIV1 or Ctrl groups. This study suggests potential pathogenesis differences between PPIV1 isolates. Additionally, these results indicate that HPIV1 is capable of replicating in nursery pigs after experimental inoculation. However, clinical disease or gross lung lesions were not observed in any of the challenge groups.
Welch M, Krueger K, Zhang J, et al. Characterization of Two Porcine Parainfluenza Virus 1 Isolates and Human Parainfluenza Virus 1 Infection in Weaned Nursery Pigs. Vet Sci. 2022;10(1):18. Published 2022 Dec 28. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010018