PCV-3 Associated with Post-weaning Growth Retardation, By Kevin Vilaca, Southwest Ontario Veterinary Services

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) has been detected in both diseased and healthy pigs of different ages. PCV-3 has been associated with reproductive failure and mummified and stillborn piglets. In Ontario, the viral agent PCV-3 and pathological changes consistent with circovirus disease have been identified in a few cases of reproductive disease. So far these cases appear to be rare. A recent report from North America has proposed a consistent potential association between PCV-3 and postweaning disorders such as wasting. These Spanish researchers described the histopathological lesions and their association with the presence of PCV-3 genome in postweaning pigs that were affected by postweaning growth-retardation and “thrown-back” ears. All affected animals that were examined displayed multi-organic lymphoplasmacytic periarteritis, lymphocytic myocarditis and/or lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis. PCV-3 genetic material was detected by in situ hybridization within these lesions and confirmed by PCV-3 real-time quantitative PCR detection in tissues.

Take Home Message:

  • A case that includes clinical signs, lesions in tissues consistent with PCV-3 as well as evidence of the PCV-3 virus present in the affected tissues is very supportive of a diagnosis of PCV-3. These same researchers are working a proposed case definition for PCV-3.
  • This study represents the first report of PCV-3 associated disease in postweaning pigs in Europe.
  • The PCV-3 virus is quite widespread. The good news is that clinical disease associated with PCV-3 continues to be a rare finding. Well worth keeping an eye on this one.

Ref:  Jaume Alomar , Viviane Saporiti , Mònica Pérez , Diogo Gonçalvez , Marina Sibila , Joaquim Segalés   Multisystemic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with PCV-3 in wasting pigs Transbound Emerg Dis . 2021 Jul 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.14260. Online ahead of print.