Host Factors Affecting Generation of Immunity Against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Pregnant and Lactating Swine and Passive Protection of Neonates

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly virulent re-emerging enteric coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea, dehydration, and up to 100% mortality in neonatal suckling piglets. Despite this, a safe and effective PEDV vaccine against highly virulent strains is unavailable, making PEDV prevention and control challenging. Lactogenic immunity induced via the gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA (sIgA) axis, remains the most promising and effective way to protect suckling piglets from PEDV. Therefore, a successful PEDV vaccine must induce protective maternal IgA antibodies that passively transfer into colostrum and milk. Identifying variables that influence lymphocyte migration and IgA secretion during gestation and lactation is imperative for designing maternal immunization strategies that generate the highest amount of lactogenic immune protection against PEDV in suckling piglets. Because pregnancy-associated immune alterations influence viral pathogenesis and adaptive immune responses in many different species, a better understanding of host immune responses to PEDV in pregnant swine may translate into improved maternal immunization strategies against enteric pathogens for multiple species. In this review, we discuss the role of host factors during pregnancy on antiviral immunity and their implications for generating protective lactogenic immunity in suckling neonates.

Langel S, Wang Q, Vlasova A, Saif L. Host factors affecting generation of immunity against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in pregnant and lactating swine and passive protection of neonates. Pathogens. 2020 Feb.