Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease affecting pigs and wild boar with up to 100% case fatality rate.
ASF reported administrative areas since August 2018:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.
Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.
Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.
Myanmar: Shan, Kachin, Kayah States and Sagaing Region.
The Philippines: Abra, Albay, Apayao, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Davao de Oro, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Occidental, Davao Oriental, Ifugao, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Leyte, Misamis Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Sarangani, Southern Leyte, Sorsogon, Surigao del Sur, Samar, Tarlac, Zambales Provinces and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).
Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Incheon City.
Timor-Leste: All districts.
Indonesia: North Sumatra, Riau, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Bali, and East Nusa Tenggara Provinces.
Papua New Guinea: Southern Highlands, Enga, Hela, Western Highlands, Jiwaka and Simbu Provinces.
India: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland States.
Disputed territory: Arunachal Pradesh.
Malaysia: Sabah State.
Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (for the past 10 weeks)
Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3 115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks [reference].
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Since the Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].
Republic of Korea
Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in 17 domestic pig farms: Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5), Gangwon-do (3). On 5 May 2021, MAFRA annouced a new outbreak in a pig farm in Yeongwol County, Gangwon-do. This was the first ASF in domestic pigs since last reported in October 2020. Pigs were reared in an outdoor space for a certain period of time although it was located at about 1.2 km from the site where wild boar case was detected on 25 February [reference1, reference2, reference3]. Since 9 October 2019 as of 11 May 2021, a total of 1 414 ASFV infected wild boars were confirmed in: Gyonggi-do: Paju (100), Yeoncheon (409), Pocheon (83), Gapyeong (30); Gangwon-do: Cheorwon (36), Hwacheon (419), Chuncheon (160), Yanggu (70), Goseong (4), Inje (78), Yeongwol (13), Yangyang (8), Gangneung (3) and Hongcheon (1) [reference4].
Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed the first outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, ASF were detected in 32 Provinces/Autonomous Regions/Municipalities/Special Administrative Region. During April, ASF outbreaks were detected in farms in Cocodala City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and in Baotou City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region [reference1, reference2]. On 1 May, another pig carcass was found on the shore of Wu Sha Jiao, Kinmen County, Taiwan Province, tested positive for ASF virus [reference3]. Since December 2018, 16 ASF virus positive floating pig carcasses have been detected so far in: Kinmen County (13), Lianjiang County (2), and New Taipei City (1) [reference4].
Since the Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed the first outbreak started on July 2019, ASF have been reported on Luzon, Mindanao, Leyte and Samar Islands. On 29 March, ASF was confirmed for the first time in Samar Island, on backyard farms in Lope de Vega, Northern Samar Province, a fomite (visitor) is suspected as the route of introduction into the farm [reference1]. ASF has spread to 12 regions, 46 provinces, 493 cities and municipalities, and 2,561 villages nationwide since it hit the country in 2019 [reference2]. The Misamis Oriental Provincial Veterinary Office reported that 7 municipalities and 30 barangays in the province have been affected by ASF [reference3]. On 4 May, DA confirmed that ASF is still present in 19 districts in Leyte, Southern Leyte, Samar and Northern Samar in Eastern Visayas Region [reference4]. According to media quoting Boliney Municipal Agriculture Office, ASF reached remoe barangays in Boliney, Abra province in mid-April. The infection started when a resident brought a wild boar in April. Media reported that ASF has also been recorded in wild pigs along the forest between Malibcong Municipality and Kalinga Province [reference5].
Malaysia confirmed the first ASF outbreaks in four backyard farms and five wild boar carcasses in February 2021 in three districts in Sabah State [reference1, reference2]. Media quoted the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries saying that ASF has affected 10 districts in Sabah State including Pitas, Kota Marudu, Beluran, Telupid, Kinabatangan, Sandakan, Lahad Datu, Tawau and Nabawan. The lastest case was detected in Nabawan on 23 April [reference3]. An article wrote that ASF is wiping out populations of the wild bearded pig (Sus barbatus); field sites in the east of the Sabah region are reporting a complete absence of live pigs in forests [reference4].
The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) confirmed an ASF outbreak in North Sumatra Province in 2019 [reference1, reference2], and reported 443 outbreaks ranging from West Sumatra Province (December 2019) through Nusa Tenggara Timur Province on 19 February 2021. According to the report, ASF is confirmed on Java and Bali as well as Eastern Nusa Tenagga islands, spread to 10 out of 34 provinces in Indonesia [reference3]. In Manokwari Regency, West Papua Province, ASF caused more than 1 000 death of pigs and spread across seven districts namely West Manokwari, East Manokwari, North Manokwari, South Manokwari, Tanah Rubuh, Warmare and Prafi, according to media [reference4].
The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019. The disease started on 9 September, and spread to all districts of the country by December 2019 [reference].
Papua New Guinea
The National Agriculture Quarantine and Inspection Authority (NAQIA) confirmed four ASF outbreaks in Mendi Munihu District, Southern Highlands Province (SHP) in March 2020 [reference1, reference2]. Surveillance conducted in May 2020 showed that ASF has spread within SHP, Hela and Enga Provinces. In January 2021, ASF was confirmed in Western Highlands Province (WHP) and Jiwaka Province, and a point infection was confirmed in Simbu Province [reference3].
Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities experienced outbreaks. MARD reported that ASF caused a loss of about 6 million pigs, but by the end of 2020 the total sow has increased to 3 million, the total number of pigs reached over 26 million, equaling 85% of the pre-ASF level. Compared to before the epidemic, large livestock enterprises grew 160% [reference].
Map 2. Provinces where no new ASF outbreaks for more than 21 days (blue) in Viet Nam
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, ASF outbreaks were reported in all 18 provinces between May and November 2019. The second round started from June 2020, ASF was detected in 15 districts in 7 provinces.
Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province in April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in five provinces [reference1]. Recently, media reported that ASF was detected in illegally transported pigs intercepted at two border checkpoints in Banteay Meanchey, and in Takeo Provinces [reference2, reference3, reference4].
Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of six ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State, two in Sagaing Region and one each in Kachin and Kayah States [reference].
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying announced the confirmation of ASF outbreaks (Genotype II) in Assam State that occurred in January-April 2020 [reference1]. Meghalaya State confirmed ASF cases in 2020 [reference2]. On 29 April 2021, Meghalaya State declared some villages in East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills and Ri Bhoi districts as epicenters, after samples dated 13 April tested positive with ASF [reference3]. In Manipur State, ASF has been reported in Thoubal and Imphal East District, according to media [reference4]. Mizoram State reported outbreaks resulted in over 1 700 pig deaths in Aizawl, Lunglei, Mamit, Serchhip and Siaha districts according to media quoting the State Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Department [reference5]. Some ASF affected districts in Mizoram were declared as epicenters [reference6]. Nagaland State also detected an ASF outbreak, samples from Phek and Kiphire Districts tested positive for ASF [reference7].
Disputed territory (Arunachal Pradesh)
Four ASF outbreaks that occurred between 26 January and 23 April 2020 in domestic pigs were reported in East Siang and Papum Pare Districts [reference1]. According to media, wild boars also died in East Siang and Upper Siang Districts [reference2] and a publication reported local people saw dead wild boars in the rivulets in Pasighat region [reference3].
Actions taken by the Republic of Korea
To prepare for wild boar breeding season in spring, MAFRA has strengthened control measures for both domestic pigs and wild boars since February [reference1, reference2]. After ASF outbreak was detected in a black pig farm on 5 May, MAFRA ordered 48-hour standstill for pig farms, livestock facilities (slaughterhouses, feed factories, etc.) and livestock vehicles in Gyeonggi, Gangwon, and Chungcheongbuk Provinces, and conducted disinfection. A drone with thermal imaging camera was used to identify wild boars around the outbreak farm to install traps. Since 13 out of 17 ASF outbreaks in domestic pig occurred in sows, introduced clinical examination of sows before entering the slaughterhouse. An emergency nationwide inspection conducted on 208 black pig raising farms (may graze in outdoor space for a certain period of time), found no other farms grazing. Based on finding, the ASF Task Force ordered: ban of grazing pigs, feeding fodder (soilage) to pigs, and pig raiser to refrain from other farming activities such as tillage farming [reference3, reference4, reference5, reference6].
Actions taken by China
In August 2020, MARA released “Technical Guidelines for Normalized Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever (Trial version)” which include detail guidance on pig production, transportation, slaughter, and self-testing [reference1]. In March 2021, MARA announced strict crack down of illegal ASF vaccines to ensure the recovery of pig production [reference2], and issued a technical guidelines for monitoring ASF variant strains in pig farms with the definition of ASF variants, monitoring and detection methods [reference3]. On 21 April, MARA issued the “Work Plan for Regional Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever and Other Major Animal Diseases (Trial version)” to further improve the animal disease prevention and control system. The plan divides the whole country into five regions, and pig movement is restricted only within the region from 1 May 2021. Within the regions, ASF-free zones are created, only pigs from the free zones, breeding pigs and piglets are allowed to move beyond their respective regions [reference4, reference5]. MARA released the fifth edition of the ‘ASF outbreak Emergency Response Plan’ [reference6].
Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village* by region by onset month in China
Actions taken by the Philippines
The President has placed the country under a state of calamity for a period of one year due to the African swine fever (ASF) outbreak effective 10 May 2021 [reference1]. The President also issued Executive Order to increase the minimum access volume (MAV) of pork meat from 54 210 metric tons (MT) to 254 210 MT this year to further address the supply problem [reference2]. DA is rolling out the “Bantay ASF sa Barangay (BABay ASF)”, a community-based approach to prevent, control and manage ASF [reference3, reference4]; has also started an initial ASF vaccine trials in collaboration with a US vaccine company [reference5]. The local authorities in the Philippines are mandated to strictly follow the National Zoning implementation and movement plan depending on the level of ASF risks [reference6].
Actions taken by Malaysia
To respond to the first confirmed outbreak in Sabah State, the pigs tested postive for ASF, and pigs within 50 km from the affected area have been culled [reference1]. The authority of Sarawak State is enforcing its import ban on pig, pork and pork products by tightening inspections at border gates and all entrances throughout Sarawak [reference2, reference3]. According to media, 234 awareness campaigns have been carried out in 14 districts of Sabah State to educate the public about the disease and highlight the government’s efforts to prevent the spread of the disease [reference4].
Actions taken by Indonesia
In December 2019, Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) recommended the public the application of biosecurity and good management of pig farms as the main strategic steps to prevent ASF, as well as strict and intensive monitoring of high-risk areas [reference1], and the Livestock and Animal Health Services (DG PKH) formed Emergency Posts with Rapid Response Teams at all levels [reference2]. In February 2020, the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) requested regional pig producers to raise awareness of the possible spread of ASF and strengthen ASF surveillance along pig value chains between regions [reference3]. Awareness raising meetings on ASF risk in pigs were organised in East Kalimantan and Tarakan [reference4, reference5]. Disposal of the dead pigs, cleansing and disinfection have been implemented in affected areas. The transportation of live pigs between areas and contaminated fomite from an animal handler, vehicle and animal remain the main risk for disease spread [reference6]. To prevent introduction of ASF, Nabire Regency has imposed a ban on the transportation to and from Nabire while Dogiyai Regency has also prohibited pork transportation from outside Dogiyai, according to media [reference7, reference8].
Actions taken by Timor-Leste
After the first ASF outbreak in Timor-Leste, the government formed a taskforce team from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAP), Customs, Quarantine, Border Patrol Police, Immigration, and the Food Safety Authority (AIFAESA) and implemented a movement ban of pig and pork products between Municipalities [reference1]. The final report of the Australian project ‘Identifying husbandry options for smallholder pig farmers in Timor-Leste’ describes what was done to mitigate ASF risk [reference2]. The MAP prohibited slaughtering ASF infected pigs for their own and other animal’s consumption or for selling, according to the media [reference3].
Actions taken by Papua New Guinea
NAQIA set up Road checkpoints at strategic provincial entry and exit points; conducted surveillance to determine the extent of the ASF spread; identified sentinel herds in the infected provinces; stepped up its ASF national risk communications and awareness campaign; and enhanced advocacy on ASF with communities, district and provincial administrations; response work for affected provinces and preparedness activities for non-infected provinces along the highway. NAQIA has engaged a national consultant organization to conduct data collection on pigs number, husbandry practices, people awareness of ASF and its effects on their livestock, in synergies with sentinel herd surveillance conducted by NAQIA. Sample collection and regular visit to farmers has been done as active surveillance. The recent COVID-19 surge is slowing down the work of relevant authorities in carrying out awareness and testing in the highlands region. Meanwhile, farmers are urged to practice the biosecurity measures. NAQIA is in talks with commercial players in the piggery industry to look at ways to help small household piggery farmers to get all household piggeries into commercial farming by establishing pig farming school and educate them about how to venture into small piggery commercial business; and calling on all disease infected provincial governments to consider the affected household pig farmers by putting in logistics and resources [reference].
Actions taken by Viet Nam
The “National Plan for the Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever for the period of 2020 – 2025” was endorsed on 7 July (972/QD-TTg) set goals for ASF control, pig farm biosecurity application and laboratory capacity development to be achieved; defined restocking conditions, sampling requirements, surveillance, conditions for culling and moving-to-slaughter [reference1]. MARD sent an Official Letter No.7258/BNN-TY to the People’s Committees of 30 provinces and cities urging further disease control activities, vigilance and biosecurity [reference2].
Figure 2. Cumulative number of affected communes/week since Tet 2020 in Viet Nam
Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic
After ASF outbreaks confirmed in 2019, The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones. When ASF reemerged in June 2020, the Government has declared red zones and is implementing movement control of animals and their products, destruction, disinfection, active surveillance, etc. As of December 2020, all zones have been lifted.
Actions taken by Cambodia
Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages [reference1]. In response to the recent ASF detection at border checkpoints, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ordered authorities to cull all pigs in the area, according to media [reference2]. After detecting ASF in pigs being imported from neighboring country in mid-February, GDAHP is implementing ASF screening test on imported pigs using ‘Portable PCR’ at border quarantine stations before sending them to Phnom Penh and other provinces [reference3].
Actions taken by Myanmar
Myanmar implemented movement control of live pigs, surveillance within containment and/or protection zone, official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste, disinfection when ASF outbreak was detected and raised awareness on good animal husbandry practices and biosecurity. According to media, in response to the ASF outbreak, educational seminars in villages were conducted, leaflets were distributed in markets, and information were sent to all communities from the township management committee to stop the spread of the disease; no pigs had died since 25 November 2020 [reference].
Actions taken by India
The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD) released the Disease Control Strategy Plan in June 2020 as guidance for State / UT Governments for ASF prevention, control and containment [reference1]. In August 2020, following ASF outbreaks, Meghalaya State declared containment zones [reference2]. According to media, Manipur State Veterinary Department has formed its ASF task force, while Thoubal and Imphal East District administrations have banned sales and movement of pigs/pork, feeds and related items from the control/contaminated areas [reference3, reference4]; and in Mizoram State, the local authorities have restricted the procurement and supply of pigs from and to Lungsen village as a response to the outbreak [reference5]. After the ASF positive tested sample from Phek district of Nagaland State, an awareness drive on ASF was conducted from 26 to 29 April in 10 villages to prevent the spread of ASF in free areas of Phek district [reference6].
ASF virus can be transmitted through pork and pork products (raw/frozen/dried/under-cooked) in which the virus can survive for a long time. Warning signs should be placed clearly at the border/customs entry including airports and sea ports, stating the consequences of bringing pork and pork products from ASF-infected countries/regions, and instructing passengers to discard pork products in designated disposal places or to hand over to the customs personnel.
Countries of the region
- Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
- Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
- Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
- Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
- Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
- Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity
- Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
- Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management…[and more]
- FAORAP is organising the third regional training of trainers on ASF detection and emergency response engaging animal health offficials from Lao PDR, the Philippines and Thailand (15-26 March 2021). [link]
- FAORAP organised a 2-day virtual regional consultation workshop on ASF preparedness and response for Asia & Pacific (9-10 March 2021).
- Alert letter on unlicensed ASF vaccine use in the region was sent out to Chief Veterinary Officers (CVOs) on 29 March 2021 by regional secretariat for FAO/OIE GF-TADs for Asia and the Pacific.[link]
- FAO co-organised the Standing Group pf Experts for African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and the Pacific, together with the OIE, held online on 5 February 2021. [link]
- FAO ECTAD Myanmar conducted a sub-national level virtual training on ASF detection and emergency response in Myanmar, together with the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD), in collaboration with FAO ECTAD RAP. The interactive training course comprises seven modules with excercise which each participant to respond week-by-week. There are 85 particiants from public and private veterinary sectors, academia, and associations.
- FAO ECTAD Cambodia held series of training courses on ASF in Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kampong provinces. [link]
- FAO ECTAD RAP organized a 2-day virtual training on ASF risk communication for Asia & Pacific (December 2020)…[and more]
- There is no African swine fever vaccine yet: e-cards on biosecurity [card1, card2, card3, card4, card5, card6, card7]
- OIE guidelines on compartmentalisation for ASF. [link]
- Video: Be a Champion Farmer!- Biosecurity is key to stop African Swine Fever. [English, Khmer, Lao, Vietnamese, and four languages used in Indonesia (Bahasa, Bali, Batak, Kupang), Nepali, Burmese and Malay]
Video: Stop ASF by NAQIA – PNG Biosecurity [
- Global Initiative on ASF Control: a GF-TADs Initiative 2020-2025. [English, Française, 中文, Русский, Español]
- African swine fever detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017). [English, Русский, 中文, Español]
- Addressing African Swine Fever: Laboratory protocols and algorithms” in collaboration with the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP, formerly AAHL). [reference]
- African swine fever in wild boar: ecology and biosecurity (2019). [link]
- Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector. [link]
- Effective disposal of animal carcasses and contaminated materials on small to medium-sized farms. [link]
- Risk communication in animal disease outbreaks and emergencies (Laboratory protocols and algorithms). [link]
- FAO FOOD OUTLOOK. [May 2019, ASF special report from p65; Nov.2020]
- Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials. [link]
- OIE webinar on ASF cross-border risk assessment study in South-East Asia [Link, recording1, recording2].
- GF-TADs webinar ‘An unprecedented global threat – Call for action.’ [link]
- Global African Swine Fever Research Alliance (GARA) 24-25 August 2020. [link]
- Standing Group of Experts on African swine fever in Europe. [link]…[and more]