Effects of Fermex 200 (fermented soybean meal) on growth performance and amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs

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Soybean meal (SBM) is one of the most important protein sources in swine diets. However, SBM has high concentrations of non-digestible oligosaccharides, mainly stachyose, raffinose, and verbascose, which may increase diarrhea incidence and reduce nursery growth performance. Fermex 200 (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA) is a new source of fermented SBM that may serve as an alternative to other protein sources in diets fed to pigs. However, there are at this point no data for effects of Fermex 200 on growth performance and amino acid (AA) digestibility when fed to weanling pigs.

Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in Fermex 200 are greater than in conventional SBM. The second hypothesis was that Fermex 200 supports growth of weanling pigs as well as other protein sources.

Experimental design

Conventional SBM was sourced from the same batch of SBM used to produce Fermex 200. The conventional SBM and Fermex 200 used in the 2 experiments originated from the same batches. Enzyme-treated SBM (HP 300; Hamlet Protein Inc., Horsens, Denmark) and yeast protein (Proplex DY; ADM Animal Nutrition, Quincy, IL, USA) were also used (Table 1).

Experiment 1: Amino Acid Digestibility

Nine weanling barrows (initial BW: 9.2 ± 1.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods for a total of 9 replicate pigs per treatment. Two diets that contained cornstarch and conventional SBM or Fermex 200 as the sole source of crude protein (CP) and AA were formulated. A N-free diet was formulated to determine basal endogenous losses of AA. Ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 for each period, and ileal digesta were analyzed for AA to calculate SID of all AA.

Experiment 2: Growth Performance

Two hundred fifty six pigs (initial BW: 6.2 ± 1.0 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 4 pigs per pen and 16 pen replicates per treatment. The 4 diets consisted of a negative control diet based on corn and conventional SBM, a positive control diet based on corn, conventional SBM, and enzyme-treated SBM (HP 300), and 2 diets in which Fermex 200 or yeast protein (Proplex DY) replaced HP 300. Pigs were fed the experimental diets in phases 1 and 2, but a common phase 3 diet was provided during the last phase. All phase 1 diets contained 4% plasma, 6.25% whey powder, and 13.5% lactose. Phase 2 diets were similar to phase 1 diets with the exception that no protein plasma and no whey powder were used, and lactose was reduced to 7.5%. The common phase 3 diet was based on corn and conventional SBM.

Results

Experiment 1: Phosphorus Digestibility

No differences were observed between Fermex 200 and conventional SBM for the AID of all AA, total indispensable AA, and total dispensable AA (Table 2). Likewise, SID values for CP and AA were not different between Fermex 200 and conventional SBM.

Experiment 2: Growth Performance

No differences were observed for all growth performance parameters of pigs fed the negative control, positive control, Proplex DY, or Fermex 200 diet (Table 3).

Key points

  • The AID and SID values for CP and AA in Fermex 200 were not different from conventional SBM.
  • The growth performance of pigs fed diets containing Fermex 200 was not different from that of pigs fed diets containing other protein sources.

Table 1. Analyzed nutrient composition of ingredients (as-fed basis)

 

Item

Fermex 2001

Conventional soybean meal

HP 3002

Proplex DY3

Dry matter, %

87.26

88.48

91.19

91.09

Crude protein, %

47.98

45.67

54.46

50.02

Trypsin inhibitor, TIU4/g

<1,000

5,100

2,200

Carbohydrates

   Glucose, %

0.94

ND9

0.30

0.08

   Sucrose, %

0.70

7.65

0.34

ND

   Maltose, %

0.06

ND

ND

ND

   Fructose, %

0.05

ND

ND

0.11

   Stachyose, %

0.48

5.50

ND

ND

   Raffinose, %

0.34

0.97

ND

ND

Indispensable amino acids, %
   Arg

3.71

3.51

3.77

1.96

   His

1.33

1.26

1.38

1.03

   Ile

2.54

2.45

2.63

2.38

   Leu

3.97

3.77

4.19

5.93

   Lys

3.18

3.13

3.28

2.42

   Met

0.72

0.71

0.77

1.04

   Phe

2.68

2.50

2.81

2.71

   Thr

1.93

1.88

2.14

2.07

   Trp

0.66

0.62

0.78

0.41

Dispensable amino acids, %
   Ala

2.21

2.10

2.36

3.61

   Asp

5.83

5.57

6.05

4.02

   Cys

0.75

0.76

0.80

0.71

   Glu

9.23

8.86

9.49

7.62

   Gly

Ser

2.17

2.08

2.06

2.03

2.32

2.41

1.83

2.25

   Ser

2.08

2.03

2.41

2.25

1Fermex 200 = fermented soybean meal (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA).

2HP 300 = enzyme-treated soybean meal (Hamlet Protein Inc., Horsens, Denmark).

3Proplex DY = yeast protein (ADM Animal Nutrition, Quincy, IL, USA).

4TIU = trypsin inhibitor units.

5ND = not detected.

 

Table 2. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in Fermex 200 and in conventional soybean meal (SBM), Exp. 11, 2

 

AID

SID

 

Item

Fermex 2003

Conventional SBM

SEM

P-value

Fermex 200

Conventional SBM

SEM

P-value

CP, %

77.8

78.0

2.37

0.945

87.8

86.9

2.09

0.763

Indispensable AA, %        
   Arg

90.1

91.4

1.23

0.474

94.0

95.0

1.02

0.524

   His

84.9

83.9

2.00

0.735

89.4

88.0

1.77

0.583

   Ile

85.6

84.0

1.65

0.505

90.4

87.9

1.45

0.255

   Leu

85.0

83.4

1.67

0.514

90.0

87.7

1.46

0.271

   Lys

80.0

84.1

2.20

0.207

84.9

87.9

1.96

0.298

   Met

87.3

86.8

1.55

0.801

91.5

90.0

1.36

0.452

   Phe

85.8

83.8

1.63

0.399

90.7

88.0

1.43

0.212

   Thr

76.0

76.8

2.39

0.822

87.0

86.1

2.11

0.751

   Trp

85.3

85.6

1.85

0.934

90.3

89.8

1.64

0.820

   Val

82.7

81.7

1.87

0.710

89.3

87.2

1.65

0.368

 Total

84.2

84.3

1.71

0.951

89.6

88.9

1.51

0.746

Dispensable AA, %        
   Ala

77.7

78.8

2.47

0.766

85.5

85.2

2.17

0.938

   Asp

81.8

82.9

2.08

0.729

86.7

86.8

1.83

0.974

   Cys

69.3

71.9

3.42

0.603

79.6

79.4

3.08

0.954

   Glu

82.5

80.0

2.52

0.496

85.6

83.0

2.23

0.415

   Gly

69.1

67.5

3.92

0.781

91.4

86.9

3.46

0.382

   Ser

83.4

83.4

2.03

0.986

91.1

89.4

1.80

0.528

 Total

All AA

79.8

80.7

78.7

84.1

2.54

2.81

0.764

0.413

89.4

89.8

87.0

88.5

2.24

2.26

0.462

0.638

 All

80.7

84.1

2.81

0.413

89.8

88.5

2.26

0.638

1Data are least squares means of 9 observations per treatment.

2Values for SID were calculated by correcting the values for AID for basal ileal endogenous losses. Basal ileal endogenous losses were determined (g/kg of DMI) as CP, 22.16; Arg, 0.58; His, 0.25; Ile, 0.49; Leu, 0.83; Lys, 0.65; Met, 0.12; Phe, 0.53; Thr, 0.89; Trp, 0.14; Val 0.69; Ala, 0.71; Asp, 1.19; Cys, 0.32; Glu, 1.21; Gly, 1.99; and Ser, 0.69.

3Fermex 200 = fermented soybean meal (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA).

Table 3. Growth performance for pigs fed the experimental diets, Exp. 21

 

Item

Negative control

Positive control

ProplexDY2

Fermex 2003

SEM

P-value

d 0 to 7, Phase 1
  Initial BW, kg

6.226

6.224

6.228

6.227

0.252

0.989

  ADG, kg

0.141

0.130

0.144

0.124

0.014

0.696

  ADFI, kg

0.177

0.160

0.165

0.164

0.012

0.766

  G:F

0.797

0.813

0.869

0.751

0.080

0.496

  Final BW, kg

7.216

7.137

7.239

7.094

0.249

0.626

d 7 to 21, Phase 2
  ADG, kg

0.406

0.414

0.374

0.417

0.017

0.148

  ADFI, kg

0.532

0.523

0.487

0.524

0.018

0.263

  G:F

0.766

0.790

0.771

0.793

0.025

0.876

  Final BW, kg

12.905

12.947

12.481

12.949

0.390

0.389

d 21 to 35, Phase 3
  ADG, kg

0.511

0.505

0.514

0.489

0.017

0.654

  ADFI, kg

0.936

0.924

0.940

0.942

0.028

0.955

  G:F

0.545

0.549

0.549

0.521

0.013

0.501

  Final BW, kg

20.062

20.017

19.681

19.778

0.565

0.793

d 0 to 21
  ADG, kg

0.318

0.315

0.298

0.320

0.016

0.528

  ADFI, kg

0.414

0.394

0.379

0.404

0.014

0.352

  G:F

0.772

0.792

0.786

0.789

0.025

0.907

d 0 to 35, Overall Phase
  ADG, kg

0.395

0.394

0.384

0.387

0.016

0.981

  ADFI, kg

G:F

0.623

0.632

0.607

0.647

0.604

0.639

0.619

0.624

0.018

0.017

0.800

0.750

  G:F

0.632

0.647

0.639

0.624

0.017

0.750

1Data are least squares means of 16 observations for all treatments.

2Proplex DY = yeast protein (ADM Animal Nutrition, Quincy, IL, USA).

3Fermex 200 = fermented soybean meal (Purina Animal Nutrition, Shoreview, MN, USA).

 

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